Bulgaria: According to the Bulgarian Competition Protection Commission and the Bulgarian Supreme Administrative Court, "100 % natural" is a synonym for "organic"/"biological" (as defined by EU law). Also, the Bulgarian Foodstuff Act recognises the designation "produced in Bulgaria" / "product of Bulgaria", which can be placed on primary products that are produced, extracted or raised on the territory of Bulgaria. There is nothing specific on "sustainability"/"eco-friendly" and food, but there is case law related to the implementation of Reg (EC) No 834/2007 and Reg (EU) No 1307/2013 that links "climate friendly" (within the meaning of cultivation/production methods) to "Green Direct Payments", the EU payment scheme for agricultural practices that are climate and environment friendly.
Czech Republic: Czech food law does not define "natural". Nevertheless, it explicitly prohibits the use of the claim "natural", unless it is either part of the legal name of the food (e.g. natural mineral water) or where its use can be justified without misleading the consumer. There are specific rules for the use of claims like "Czech food" and "made in the Czech Republic" or graphic depictions of the Czech flag. There is no legal definition of "regional", but there is a "regional food" logo that can be granted by the Ministry of Agriculture to food products made from local ingredients linked to a particular region, e.g. by traditional manner of production.
Hungary: The Parliament adopted a National Sustainability Framework Strategy, which regulates its legislative activities for sustainability and defines the word "sustainability". It means that the generation that creates its own well-being at a given moment in time does not exhaust its resources but preserves and expands them in sufficient quantity and quality for future generations. There seems to be much room for interpretation.
Moldova: Moldovan law defines "ecologic food product" and indicates that the term is synonymous with "biologic" and "organic".
Poland: Food can be a cultural heritage and should therefore be protected. Naturally, it must meet high criteria, one of which is that the production methods must have been used at least 25 years to be considered "traditional". Naturally, there are also rules on using claims like "Polish product". A general rule for processed products is that at least 75 % of the raw materials must be produced in Poland. Although there is no legally binding definition for "natural", according to Polish soft law a "natural" product is one made in a simple way (including by pressing, drying, smoking, marinating, etc.) from natural and low-processed ingredients. Similar terms to natural are also "homemade", "grandma's", etc.
Romania: There is no legal definition of "sustainability" or "climate friendly" in connection with food products or packages. Usually, these claims are associated with "organic" or "biological". Under the Draft of the Circular Economy Strategy proposed by the Romanian Government in 2022, sustainability of products is encouraged, but only with respect to food waste or reducing food losses. Naturally, there are rules on "Romanian products"; but there is no single general legal definition for "natural". Product-specific legal definitions exist, e.g. milk. According to Romanian case law, as a general term "natural" may be used if the product has not been filtered or subjected to technological processes and no other food additives have been added. The authorities' view is that the term "natural" should be interpreted based on the dictionary definition, meaning coming directly from nature, without being processed. This is currently a debatable topic.
Slovakia: The term "regional" is defined, but "national" is not. However, there are definitions for "Slovak food" and "produced in Slovakia".
Slovenia: The Slovenian Agriculture Act sets out definitions for "designation of origin" and "geographical indication" for products that are from specific places, regions or, in exceptional cases, countries. Those labels are granted based on the submission for protection of the product in accordance with the Rules on quality schemes for agricultural products and foodstuffs.
In the absence of clear regulations, it is at the discretion of the advertising entities to decide what meaning a given claim has, to communicate that meaning clearly and to be able to substantiate it.
This overview has been compiled by Iliyana Sirakova, Elena Todorova, Monika Voldanova, Akos Kovacs, Vladimir Iurkovski, Andrian Guzun, Paulina Klimek-Woźniak, Georgiana Vlădescu; Oana Constantinescu, Peter Devinsky and Manja Hubman.